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English Electric Canberra PR.3
Twin-engine three-crew photo reconnaissance jet bomber, U.K.


Archive Photos [1]


[English Electric “Canberra PR.3” (WE139) on display (c.1994) at the Royal Air Force Museum London, Hendon Aerodrome, London, England (Photo by John Shupek copyright © 2002 Skytamer Images)]

Overview [2]


The English Electric “Canberra” is a first-generation jet-powered light bomber manufactured in large numbers through the 1950s. The “Canberra” could fly at a higher altitude than any other bomber through the 1950s and set a world altitude record of 70,310 ft (21,430 m) in 1957. Due to its ability to evade early interceptors, and its significant performance advancement over contemporary piston-engined bombers, the “Canberra” was a popular export product and served with many nations.

In addition to being a tactical nuclear strike aircraft, the “Canberra” proved to be highly adaptable, serving in varied roles such as tactical bombing and photographic and electronic reconnaissance. “Canberras” served in the Vietnam War, the Falklands War, the Indo-Pakistani Wars, and numerous African conflicts. In several wars, both of the opposing forces had “Canberras” in their air forces. The “Canberra” was retired by its first operator, the Royal Air Force (RAF), in June 2006, 57 years after its first flight. Two of the Martin B-57 variant remain in service, performing “Meteor”ological work for NASA, as well as providing electronic communication (Battlefield Airborne Communications Node or BACN) testing for deployment to Afghanistan.

Development - Background [2]


The “Canberra” had its origins in a 1944 Air Ministry requirement for a successor to the de Havilland “Mosquito” - a high altitude, high-speed bomber with no defensive armament. Several British aircraft manufacturers submitted proposals. Among the companies short-listed to proceed with development studies was English Electric, a well-established industrial manufacturer with very little aircraft experience, though when a desperate need for bombers arose during the early years of the Second World War, English Electric had built the Handley Page “Hampden” under licence.

In 1944, Westland Aircraft's technical director and chief designer W. E. W. Petter prepared a design study for a twin-engined fighter bomber, the P.1056, based on two fuselage-mounted Metrovick F.2/4 “Beryl” engines. The authorities doubted its suitability for operations from unprepared fields and at low altitude but could see its potential as a bomber design; numerous manufacturers refused to take on the design. Petter left Westland to join the English Electric company in December 1944, where he was encouraged to develop his design, EE formed its own in-house aircraft design team in the following year.

In June 1945, the design of the aircraft that was to become the “Canberra” bore many similarities to the eventual design, albeit the placement of a single, centrally-mounted turbojet engine; the use of two wing-mounted engines were adopted later that year. On 7 January 1946, the Ministry of Supply placed a contract for the development and production of four English Electric A.1 aircraft. It continued to be known as the English Electric A.1 until it received the name “Canberra” after the capital of Australia in January 1950 by Sir George Nelson, chairman of English Electric, as Australia was the first export customer for the aircraft.

The “Canberra” had a simple design, looking like a scaled-up Gloster “Meteor” with a mid wing. The fuselage was circular in cross section, tapered at both ends and, cockpit aside, entirely without protrusions; the line of the large, low-aspect ratio wings was broken only by the tubular engine nacelles. The use of swept-wings was examined but decided against as the expected operational speeds did not warrant it, and it would have introduced unresolved aerodynamic problems to what was aimed at being a straightforward replacement for the RAF's Hawker “Typhoon” and Westland “Whirlwind” fighter-bombers.

Although jet powered, the “Canberra” design philosophy was very much in the “Mosquito” mould, providing room for a substantial bomb load, fitting two of the most powerful engines available, and wrapping it in the most compact and aerodynamic package possible. Rather than devote space and weight to defensive armament which historically could not overcome purpose-designed fighter aircraft, the “Canberra” was designed to fly fast and high enough to avoid air-to-air combat entirely.

Prototypes and First Flights [2]


The Air Ministry specification B.3/45 had requested the production of four prototypes. English Electric began construction of these in early 1946. However, due to post-war military reductions, the first aircraft did not fly until 13 May 1949. By the time the first prototype had flown, the Air Ministry had already ordered 132 production aircraft in bomber, reconnaissance, and training variants. The prototype proved vice-free and required only a few modifications. A new glazed nose had to be fitted to accommodate a bomb-aimer because the advanced H2S Mk.9 bombing radar was not ready for production, the turbojet engines were upgraded to the more powerful Rolls-Royce “Avon” R.A.3's,” and distinctive teardrop-shaped fuel tanks were fitted under the wingtips.

The resultant aircraft, designated the “Canberra B2,” first flew on 21 April 1950, piloted by Roland Beaumont. Proving to be fairly free of problems, this first flight was almost immediately followed up by the manufacturing of production “Canberras” and entered squadron service with RAF No. 101 Squadron in May 1951. In a testament to the aircraft's benign handling characteristics, the transition program consisted of only 20 hours in the Gloster “Meteor” and three hours in the dual-control “Canberra” trainer.

With a maximum speed of 470 kt (871 km/h), a standard service ceiling of 48,000 ft (14,600 m), and the ability to carry a 3.6-tonne (7,900 lb) payload, the “Canberra” was an instant success. It was built in 27 versions that equipped 35 RAF squadrons, and was exported to more than 15 countries, including Australia, Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Ethiopia, France, India, New Zealand, Pakistan, Peru, Rhodesia, South Africa, Sweden, Venezuela and West Germany.

Photo-reconnaissance and Conversion Roles [2]


The strategic reconnaissance role within the RAF had been carried out by the de Havilland “Mosquito”; in 1946 the Air Ministry issued Specification PR.31/46 as a jet-powered replacement for the “Mosquito”. To meet the requirement, the B2 design was modified by adding a 14-inch (36 cm) bay forward of the wing behind the cockpit to house seven cameras. It also had an additional fuel tank in the forward part of the bomb bay and only needed a two-man crew. The prototype, designated PR3, first flew on 19 March 1950, followed by the first of 35 production aircraft on the 31 July 1952. It entered service in December 1952 when No. 540 Squadron RAF began to convert from the “Mosquito PR.34.” The “Canberra PR3” was the first purely photographic aircraft ever designed for the RAF.

To enable crews to convert to flying the “Canberra”, a trainer version was developed to meet Air Ministry Specification T2/49. The prototype designated T4 first flew on 12 June 1951. It was the same basic design as the B2 apart from the introduction of side-by-side seating for the pilot and the instructor and the replacement of the glazed nose with a solid nose. The first production T4 flew on 20 September 1953 and the variant entered service with No. 231 Operational Conversion Unit RAF in early 1954. As well as the operational conversion unit, all the B2-equipped bomber squadrons received at least one T4 for training.

Manufacturing Abroad [2]


In the United States, where the US Air Force needed to replace the Douglas B-26 “Invader,” 403 “Canberras” were manufactured under licence by Martin as the B-57 “Canberra” in several versions. While these were initially almost exactly the same as the English Electric pattern aircraft apart from the tandem crew seating, later models featured a series of substantial modifications. In Australia, the Government Aircraft Factory (GAF) built 48 for the Royal Australian Air Force, broadly similar to the British B2 but with a modified leading edge, increased fuel capacity and room for three starter cartridges, although in practice all three cartridges would sometimes fire, leading to the triple starter units being loaded singly.

In the United Kingdom, the demand for “Canberras” exceeded English Electric's ability to manufacture the aircraft; thus several other British aviation firms, Handley Page, Avro and Short Brothers, also manufactured the “Canberra” under licence. A total of 901 “Canberras” were manufactured in the UK, making a total worldwide “Canberra” production of 1,352.

Design [2]


The “Canberra” is mostly constructed of metal, only the forward portion of the tail-fin is made from wood. The wing is of single-spar construction that passes through the aircraft's fuselage; the wingspan and total length of the “Canberra” were almost identical at just under 20 meters. Outboard of the engine nacelles, the wing has a leading-edge sweep of 4° and trailing-edge sweep of -14°. Controls are conventional with ailerons, four-section flaps, and airbrakes on top and bottom surfaces of the wings.

The fuselage of the “Canberra” is of semi-monocoque construction with a pressurized nose compartment. Due to the use of a new alloy, DTD683, the undercarriages of the “Canberra” suffered from stress corrosion, which caused them to decay within a few years. The extreme hazard posed of undercarriages collapsing during landings, especially if the aircraft were carrying nuclear weapons, led the RAF to institute regular inspections, at first using radiography before moving to more effective and reliable ultrasound technology.

Thrust was provided by a pair of 30 kN axial flow Rolls-Royce “Avon” turbojets. The manufacturer specified that Coffman engine starters should be used to start the engine. An improvised method of starting the engine using compressed air was heavily discouraged by Rolls-Royce, but some operators successfully operated the “Canberra”'s engines in such a manner, the benefit being significant cost savings over cartridges. The aircraft's maximum take-off weight was a little under 25 tonnes.

““The value of the “Canberra” experience cannot be over-estimated. It is the only modern tactical strike and reconnaissance aircraft in service with the RAF and many other Air Forces. More “Canberra” aircraft are in service with foreign countries than the “Viscount,” which holds the record for British civil aircraft. This is due to the flexibility of the “Canberra” in its operational roles and performance...””

Manufacturer's brochure, 1957.

It was designed for a crew of two under a fighter-style canopy, but delays in the development of the intended automatic radar bombsight resulted in the addition of a bomb aimer's position in the nose. Each crew member has a Martin-Baker ejection seat except in the B(I)8 and its export versions where the navigator makes use of an escape hatch and parachute.

The “Canberra” could deploy many conventional weapons, typical weapons used were 250-pound, 500-pound, and 1000-pound bombs, the total bomb load could weigh up to 10,000 pounds (4.5 t). Two bomb-bays are housed within the fuselage, these are normally enclosed by conventional clam-shell doors; this was substituted for a rotating door on the Martin-built B-57 “Canberras”. Additional stores up to a total of 2,000 pounds (0.91 t) could be carried upon underwing pylons.

Operators such as Rhodesia developed their own munitions such as anti-personnel bomblets, the “Alpha” bomb, and adapted these for use by their “Canberra” fleets. Anti-personnel flechette bombs were tested successfully from the “Canberra” by Rhodesia, but not used operationally due to international agreements.

In part due to its range limitation of just 2,000 miles (3,200 km), and its inability to carry the early, bulky nuclear bombs, the “Canberra” acted as more of a tactical bomber than a strategic one. Many “Canberras” that were stationed at remote overseas locations did not undertake modifications to become nuclear-capable until as late as 1957.

Operational History [2]


Royal Air Force

The “Canberra B2” started to enter service with 101 Squadron in January 1951, with 101 Squadron being fully equipped by May, and a further squadron, No. 9 Squadron equipping by the end of the year. The production of the “Canberra” was accelerated as a result of the outbreak of the Korean War, orders for the aircraft increased and outpaced production capacity, as the aircraft was designated as a “super priority.” A further five squadrons were able to be equipped with the “Canberra” by the end of 1952; however, production in the 1951-52 period had only been half of the level planned, due to shortages in skilled manpower, material, and suitable machine tools.

The “Canberra” replaced “Mosquito”s, ““Lincoln”s” and “Washingtons” as front line bombers, showing a drastically improved performance, proving to be effectively immune from interception during air defense exercises until the arrival of the Hawker “Hunter.” The “Canberra” also replaced the RAF's “Mosquito”s in the reconnaissance role, with the “Canberra PR3” entering service in December 1952. The improved “Canberra B6,” with more powerful engines and a greater fuel capacity, started to supplement the “Canberra B2's” in the UK based squadrons of Bomber Command from June 1954, when they replaced 101 Squadrons “Canberra B2's.” This freed up older “Canberra B2's” to allow “Canberra” squadrons to form overseas, with bomber and reconnaissance “Canberra” wings forming in RAF Germany and on Cyprus, with squadrons also being deployed to the Far East.

The “Canberra” executed a 1953 reconnaissance flight over the Soviet rocket launch and development site at Kapustin Yar, although the UK government has never admitted the existence of such a flight. Further reconnaissance flights are alleged to have taken place along, and over, the borders of the Soviet Union in 1954 under the code name “Project Robin”, using the “Canberra B2” (WH726). The USAF also used the “Canberra” for reconnaissance flights, however the aircraft were no longer required after June 1956, the introduction of the US Lockheed U-2 purpose-built reconnaissance aircraft; “Project Robin” was then terminated. These RAF “Canberra” overflights were later featured in the 1994 BBC “Timewatch” episode; &ldquoSpies in the Sky,” and included interviews with some of the Soviet MiG-15 “Fagot” pilots who had attempted to intercept them.

The “Canberra” was the “Victor”ious plane flown in “The Last Great Air Race” from London to Christchurch in 1953, piloted by Flight Lieutenant Roland (Monty) Burton, which touched down at Christchurch 41 minutes ahead of its closest rival — after 23 hr 51 min in the air, to this day the record has never been broken.

The Vickers “Valiant” entered service in 1955, capable of carrying much heavier weapon loads, including the “Blue Danube” atomic bomb, over longer ranges than the “Canberra”. This led to the Bomber Command force of “Canberras” equipped for high-level conventional bombing to be gradually phased out. This did not mean the end of the “Canberra” in front line service, however, as it proved suitable for the low-level strike and ground attack role, and versions dedicated to this role were brought into service. The interim B(I)6, converted from the B6 by adding provision for a pack of four 20 mm cannon in the rear bomb bay and underwing pylons for bombs and rockets, entered service in 1955, with the definitive, new build B(I)8, which added a new forward fuselage with a fighter-style canopy for the pilot, entering service in January 1956.

An important role for the new low-level force was tactical nuclear strike, using the “Low Altitude Bombing System” (LABS) to allow a nuclear bomb to be delivered from low level while allowing the bomber to escape the blast of the weapon. RAF Germany's force of four squadrons equipped with the B(I)6 and B(I)8 were equipped to carry US-owned Mark 7 nuclear bombs, while three squadrons based on Cyprus and one at Singapore were armed with British-owned “Red Beard” nuclear weapons.

Bomber Command retired the last of its “Canberras” on 11 September 1961, but the Germany, Cyprus and Singapore based squadrons continued in the nuclear strike role. The Cyprus based squadrons and one of the RAF Germany squadrons disbanded in 1969, with the Singapore based unit followed in 1970. The three remaining RAF Germany units, which by now had replaced the old Mark 7 bombs with newer (but still US-owned) B43 nuclear bombs, remained operational until 1972, the last “Canberra” bombers in RAF service.

The RAF continued to operate the “Canberra” after 1972, employing it for reconnaissance (with Squadrons equipped with PR7's and PR9's being based at RAF Wyton in the UK and RAF Luqa in Malta. The PR9's were fitted with special LOROP (Long-Range Optical Photography) cameras, reportedly based on those used by the Lockheed U-2, to allow high-altitude of targets deep into Eastern Europe while flying along the inner German border, as well as infrared linescan cameras for low level night reconnaissance. The RAF used “Canberras” to search for hidden arms dumps using false-color photography during Operation Motorman in July 1972, when the British Army re-took Irish republican held "no go areas" in Belfast and Derry. “Canberras” were used for reconnaissance over Bosnia during the war during the 1990s, where they were used to locate mass graves and during the Kosovo War in 1999. They were also operated from Uganda during the First Congo War, where they were used to search for refugees. Small numbers of specially equipped “Canberras” were also used for signals intelligence, being operated by 192 Squadron and then 51 Squadron from 1953 to 1976.

The PR9 variant remained in service with No. 39 (1 PRU) Squadron until July 2006 for strategic reconnaissance and photographic mapping, seeing service in the 2003 invasion of Iraq and, up to June 2006, in Afghanistan. During a ceremony to mark the standing down of 39 (1 PRU) Squadron at RAF Marham on 28 July 2006, a flypast by a “Canberra” PR9 on its last ever sortie was conducted.

Royal Australian Air Force

Shortly after the end of the Second World War, the Australian government began reorganizing the armed forces. The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) developed Plan “D” for its postwar structure, built around the concept of a small, agile air arm employing leading edge technology. The RAAF decided to acquire the “Canberra” to replace or complement the Avro “Lincoln,” though fears were raised that the new design was not especially advanced. While Australia never introduced nuclear weapons into service, the “Canberra's” ability to carry such a payload was a factor in its acquisition; Australia's planned force of 48 “Canberras”, with the potential for being nuclear-armed, was viewed as far more potent and deterring than the entire RAAF's wartime forces of 254 heavy bombers. The first Australian-built “Canberra” first flew on 29 May 1953 at Avalon and was delivered to the RAAF for service trials a few weeks later. The “Canberra” entered Australian service in December 1953.

From July 1950 to July 1960, during the Malayan Emergency, “Canberras” from Australia, New Zealand and the UK were deployed into the Malaysia to fight against Communist guerillas. In 1967, the RAAF deployed a squadron of “Canberras” to Vietnam War. The unit, No. 2 Squadron, was later commended for its performance by the United States Air Force. The “Canberras” were typically operated in the low-level bombing role. They were withdrawn from Vietnam in 1971, two of the aircraft having been lost in combat.

As early as 1954, Australia recognized that the “Canberra” was becoming outdated, and evaluated aircraft such as the Avro “Vulcan” and Handley-Page “Victor” as potential replacements. The “Canberra” was incapable of providing adequate coverage of Indonesia from Australian bases, and was evaluated as having a “very low” chance of survival if it encountered modern fighters like the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17 &lfquo;Fresco.” Political pressure for a “Canberra” replacement rose to a head in 1962. Australia evaluated the BAC TSR-2, Dassault “Mirage IV,” McDonnell Douglas F-4 “Phantom II” and North American A-5 “Vigilante,” and initially appeared to favor the BAC TSR-2, but chose to procure the General Dynamics F-111C “Aardvark” in October 1963. Due in part to delays in the delivery of the General Dynamics F-111C “Aardvarks,” the “Canberra” continued to be used by Australia for a total of 29 years before its retirement in June 1982.

Indian Air Force

The “Canberra” was the backbone of the Indian Air Force (IAF) for bombing raids and photo-reconnaissance for many decades. Negotiations to acquire the “Canberra” as a replacement for the short-lived and obsolete Consolidated B-24 “Liberator” bombers then being used by India began in 1954. During the extended negotiations between Britain and India, the Soviet Union is alleged to have offered their own jet bomber, the Ilyushin Il-28, at a significantly lower price than that asked for the “Canberra”; by April 1956, however, the Indian government was in favor of the purchase. In January 1957 India placed a large order for the “Canberra”; a total of fifty-four “Canberra B(I)58” bombers, eight “Canberra PR57” photo-reconnaissance aircraft, and six “Canberra T4” training aircraft were ordered, deliveries began in the summer of that same year. A total of 12 more “Canberras” were ordered in September 1957, as many as 30 more may have also been purchased by 1962.

First used in combat by the IAF in 1962, the “Canberra” was employed during the UN campaign against the breakaway Republic of Katanga in Africa. During the Indo-Pakistani Wars of the 1960's and 1970's, the “Canberra” was used by both sides. One of the worst combat loss incidents occurred on 1 September 1965, when four Indian “Canberras” were shot down by Pakistani fighters. The most audacious use of the bomber was in the “Raid on Badin” during the Second Kashmir War, when the Indian Air Force sent in the “Canberra” to attack a critical Pakistani radar post in West Pakistan. The raid was a complete success, the radars in Badin having been badly damaged by the bombing and put out of commission. A later raid by the IAF was attempted on Peshawar Air base with the aim of destroying, amongst other targets, several Pakistani B-57 bombers, American-built Martin B-57 “Canberras”. Due to poor visibility, a road outside of the base was bombed, instead of the runway where PAF Martin B-57 bombers were parked.

During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Indian “Canberras” flew a strategically important sortie against the Karachi oil tanks, this had the effect of helping the Indian Navy in their own operations, a series of missile boat attacks against the Pakistani coast. On 21 May 1999, prior to the commencement of the Kargil War, the Indian Air Force Air HQ assigned a “Canberra PR57” aircraft on a photographic mission near the Line of Control, where it took a severe blow from a FIM-92 “Stinger” infrared homing missile on the starboard engine; the “Canberra” successfully returned to base using the other engine.

The entire Indian Air Force “Canberra” fleet was grounded and then retired following the crash of an IAF “Canberra” in December 2005. After 50 years of service, the “Canberra” was finally retired by the IAF on 11 May 2007.

Africa

During the Suez Crisis the RAF employed around 100 “Canberras”, flying conventional bombing and reconnaissance missions from airfields in both Malta and Cyprus. A total of 278 “Canberra” sorties were flown, dropping 1,439 1000 lb (450 kg) bombs; however low-level strikes by smaller fighters were judged to be more effective than the night time bombing operations performed by both the “Canberra” and the Vickers “Valiant”. In addition, many of the bombs, intended to hit Egyptian airfields, missed their targets, failing to inflict much damage to the Egyptian Air Force or to badly demoralize the enemy. While interception of the “Canberra” was within the capabilities of Egypt's Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 “Fagots” and Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17 “Frescos,” as shown by the interception of “Canberras” by Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 “Fagots” prior to the Anglo-French invasion, these did not result in any losses. The only “Canberra” shot down during the Suez campaign was a “Canberra PR7” shot down by a Syrian Gloster “Meteor” fighter on 6 November 1956, the last day of the war.

The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland considered the “Canberra” an important objective to holding greater diplomatic sway in the African continent, and ongoing negotiations over the Baghdad treaty, and a step towards decolonization. The Suez Crisis caused a delay in the sale, but in August 1957 18 “Canberras” had been earmarked to be refurbished and transferred from the RAF to the Royal Rhodesian Air Force (RRAF). Both Rhodesia and South Africa used “Canberras” in their respective Bush Wars; numerous aircraft were lost in the conflicts. Rhodesian “Canberras” carried out attacks on Mozambique, often armed with cluster bombs, more limited raids on Zambia, and an attack upon a terrorist base in Angola. Ethiopian “Canberras” were used against Eritrea and again against Somalia during the 1970's.

Europe

The Swedish Air Force purchased two “Canberras” from the RAF in 1960 and had these modified to “Canberras T11's” by Boulton Paul. The aircraft were secretly modified in Sweden as espionage aircraft for eavesdropping on primarily Soviet, Polish and East German military radio transmissions, although this was not publicly admitted until 10 years later. The “Canberras” were given the designation “Tp 52 Canberras,” and taken into service as “testing aircraft,”, until they were replaced by two Tp 85 “Tp 85 Caravelles” in 1971.

South America

The Argentine Air Force received 10 “Canberra B62's” and two “Canberra T64” trainers at the beginning of the 1970s. During the Falklands War in 1982, eight of them were deployed to Trelew, 670 miles (1,080 km) from the islands, to avoid congestion on the closer southern airfields. They were within operating range of the British task force, but the “Canberra” was judged to be a limited threat due to its poor maneuverability compared with the “Sea Harriers” on air defense duties. On 1 May 1982, during an attack on the British ships sailing towards the islands by several Israeli-built “Daggers” and 3 “Canberras”, one of the bombers and at least one “Dagger” was shot down by responding “Sea Harriers,” firing AIM-9L “Sidewinder” missiles, for no losses on the British side. Following this engagement, Argentina stopped using the “Canberra” on such missions.

Nonetheless, from 1 May to 14 June 1982, Argentine “Canberras” made 54 sorties; 36 of them bombing missions, of which 22 were at night against ground troops. Two aircraft were lost in combat, the first to a “Sea Harrier” by an AIM-9L “Sidewinder” air-to-air missile on 1 May 1982. On 13 June 1982, a single “Canberra Mk.62” of Grupo de Bombardeo 2, B-108 was shot down while flying at 12,000 m (39,000 ft). It had been en route to bomb British troops at Port Harriet House when it was struck by a “Sea Dart” missile fired from “HMS Cardiff”. The pilot ejected safely but the navigator was killed. It was the last Argentine aircraft to be lost in combat during the Falklands War, the Argentine forces surrendering the next day. Argentina retired its last “Canberras” in April 2000.

Peruvian Air Force “Canberras” flew combat sorties against Ecuadorian positions during the “Cenepa War” in 1995. On 6 February 1995, a “Canberra Mk.68” disappeared over the operations zone; the aircraft had apparently struck a hill in poor weather conditions. Peru retired its “Canberras” in June 2008.

Development and Trials Aircraft [2]


A number of “Canberras” were used by English Electric for development work and trials on new equipment. It was also used by government establishments such as the Royal Aircraft Establishment and the Royal Radar Establishment. The “Canberra” proved to be a useful platform for such work and was used by a number of British tests and trials establishments. As well as those operated by English Electric, a number of engine manufacturers were also loaned “Canberras” as engine test beds; Armstrong Siddeley for the “Sapphire,” Bristol Siddeley for the “Olympus,” de Havilland Engine Company for the “Gyron Junior” turbojet and Rolls-Royce Limited for the “Avon”. Ferranti used four different “Canberra B2's” for avionics development work.

One example is WV787 which was built as a “Canberra B2” in 1952, it was loaned to Armstrong Siddeley and was fitted with Armstrong Siddeley “Sapphire” engines. It was later transferred to Ferranti for trials for the Blackburn “Buccaneer“ radar and fitted with a “Canberra B(I)8” type nose and a “Buccaneer” style radome. It next was moved to the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment where it was modified to be used as a water-spray tanker aircraft for de-icing trials. It would fly in front of the aircraft being tested which would fly into the artificial cloud created by the sprayed water to induce icing. It was retired in 1984 and later preserved at the Newark Air Museum and is a National Benchmark airframe on the National Aviation Heritage Register.

Flight Records Set by “Canberras” [2]


  • 21 January 1951 - first non-stop unrefuelled transatlantic crossing by a jet.
  • 26 August 1952 - the prototype “Canberra B5” made the first double transatlantic crossing by a jet, with a total time of 10 hr 3 min.
  • 4 May 1953 - “Canberra B2” (WD952), fitted with Rolls-Royce “Olympus” engines set a world altitude record, flying at 63,668 ft (19,406 m).
  • 29 August 1955 - altitude record, 65,889 ft (20,083 m)
  • 28 August 1957 - altitude record, 70,310 ft (21,430 m): “Canberra B2” (WK163) with a Napier “Double Scorpion” rocket motor.

Variants [2]


  • English Electric A.1: Company designation for the first four aircraft before being named “Canberra”.

  • Canberra B Mk.1: Prototypes for type development work and research at first known by the company designation A.1, four built.

  • Canberra B Mk.2: First production version, crew increased to three with addition of bomb aimer, “Avon” R.A.3 engines with 6,500 lbf (28.91 kN) of thrust, wingtip fuel tanks. 418 built by English Electric, Avro, Handley Page and Short Brothers & Harland including eight for export (Australia, United States and Venezuela).

  • Canberra PR Mk.3: Photo-reconnaissance version of B2, it had a 14 inch section added to the fuselage to house the camera bay, internal fuel was increased and flat panel in the nose was removed. Needed only two crew. The prototype was flown on 19 March 1950 and the variant entered service in 1953.

  • Canberra T Mk.4: First trainer variant with dual controls and a crew of three.

  • Canberra B Mk.5: Prototype of second-generation “Canberra” with fuel tanks in the wings and “Avon” R.A.7 engines with 7,490 lbf (33.32 kN) of thrust, one built.

  • Canberra B Mk.6: Production version based on B5 with a 1 ft (0.3 m) fuselage stretch, 106 built by English Electric and Short Brothers & Harland, includes 12 for export.

  • Canberra B6(RC): RC = Radio Countermeasures (also known as B6(Mod) or PR16) - Specialist ELINT version with enlarged nose and “Blue Shadow Side Looking Airborne Radar” (SLAR). Only four produced, extended nose.

  • Canberra B(I) Mk.6: Interim interdictor version for the RAF pending delivery of the B(I)8. Based on B6 with a detachable ventral pack housing four 20 mm Hispano cannon for strafing; also had provision for two wing hard points. LABS (Low-Altitude Bombing System) for delivery of nuclear bombs. 22 produced.

  • Canberra PR Mk.7: Photo-reconnaissance version based on B6, had similar equipment to the PR3 but had the uprated “Avon” 109 engines of the B6 and increased internal fuel capacity, 74 built.

  • Canberra B(I) Mk.8: Third-generation “Canberra” derived from B6 as an interdictor. Fitted with a new forward fuselage with teardrop canopy on the port side, and Navigator station forward of pilot (early marks had the navigator behind the pilot. Provision for a ventral pack similar to the B(I)6 with 4 × 20 mm Hispano cannon, one external hardpoint under each wing for up to 1,000 lb (454 kg) of bombs or unguided rockets, LABS (Low-Altitude Bombing System) for delivery of nuclear bombs. Prototype converted from the only B5 and first flown 23 July 1954, 72 built including 17 for export and two converted from B2's.

  • Canberra PR Mk.9: Photo-reconnaissance version based on B(I)8 with fuselage stretched to 68 ft (27.72 m), wingspan increased by 4 ft (1.22 m), and “Avon” R.A.27 (“Avon” 206) engines with 10,030 lbf (44.6 kN) of thrust. Had the offset canopy of the B(I)8 with a hinged nose to allow fitment of an ejection seat for the navigator. A total of 23 built by Short Brothers & Harland with three transferred to Chile after the Falklands War.

  • Canberra U10 (later designated D10): Remote-controlled target drones converted from B2. 18 converted.

  • Canberra T11: Nine B2's converted to trainers for pilots and navigators of all-weather interceptors to operate the Airborne Intercept radar, crew of four.

  • Canberra B(I) Mk.12: “Canberra B(I)8” bombers built for New Zealand and South Africa.

  • Canberra T Mk.13: Training version of the T4 for New Zealand, one built new and one conversion from T4.

  • Canberra U Mk.14 (later designated D14): Remote-controlled target drones converted from the B2 for Royal Navy. Six converted.

  • Canberra B Mk.15: Upgraded B6 for use in the Far and Near East with underwing hardpoints for 1,000 lb (454 kg) bombs or rockets. New avionics and fitting of three cameras, 39 conversions.

  • Canberra B Mk.16: Similar to B15 for use in Germany and fitted with “Blue Shadow”, 19 conversions.

  • Canberra T Mk.17: Electronic warfare training variant used to train surface-based radar and missile operators and airborne fighter and Airborne Early Warning crews in handling jamming (including chaff dropping) aircraft. 24 conversions from B2 with extended nose for sensors.

  • Canberra T Mk.17A: Updated version of the T17 with improved navigation aids, a spectrum analyzer in place of the previously fitted AN/APR-20, and a powerful communications jammer.

  • Canberra TT Mk.18: Target tug conversion of B2 for the Royal Navy, 22 conversions.

  • Canberra T Mk.19: T11 with radar removed as silent target.

  • Canberra B Mk.20: B2 with additional fuel tanks in the wings, licence-built in Australia.

  • Canberra T Mk.21: Trainers converted from B2 and B20.

  • Canberra T Mk.22: Conversion of the PR7 for Royal Navy's Fleet Requirement and Air Direction Unit, used for training Buccaneer navigators.

  • Canberra B Mk.52: Refurbished B2 bombers sold to Ethiopia.

  • Canberra Mk.56: Refurbished B(I)6 bombers sold to Peru.

  • Canberra PR Mk.57: Tropicalized PR7 for India.

  • Canberra B(I) Mk.58: Tropicalized B(I)8 for India.

  • Canberra B Mk.62: 10 refurbished B2 bombers sold to Argentina.

  • Canberra T Mk.64: 2 refurbished T4 trainers sold to Argentina.

  • Canberra B(I) Mk.66: 10 refurbished B(I)6 bombers sold to India.

  • Canberra PR Mk.67: 2 refurbished PR7's sold to India.

  • Canberra Mk.68: 1 refurbished B(I)8 bomber sold to Peru.

  • Canberra B Mk.92: 1 modified B2 for Argentina, not delivered and embargoed in 1982.

  • Canberra T Mk.94: 1 modified T4 for Argentina, not delivered and embargoed in 1982.

  • Short SC.9: 1 “Canberra” PR9 rebuilt by Shorts fitted with an AI.23 radar, plus IR installation in the nose for Red Top air-to-air missile trials. Continued in use for radar missile development work.

  • Short SD.1: 1 “Canberra” PR3 modified to carry two Short SD.2 variants of the Beech AQM-37A high-speed target missiles for trials by the Royal Aircraft Establishment.

Specifications (Canberra B.Mk.6) [2]


General Characteristics

  • Crew: 3
  • Length: 65 ft 6 in (19.96 m)
  • Wingspan: 64 ft 0 in (19.51 m)
  • Height: 15 ft 8 in (4.77 m)
  • Wing area: 960 ft² (89.19 m²)
  • Empty weight: 21,650 lb (9,820 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 46,000 lb (20,865 kg)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 55,000 lb (24,948 kg)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Rolls-Royce “Avon” R.A.7 Mk.109 turbojets, 7,400 lbf (36 kN) each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: Mach 0.88 (580 mph, 933 km/h) at 40,000 ft (12,192 m)
  • Combat radius: 810 mi (700 nm, 1,300 km)
  • Ferry range: 3,380 mi (2,940 nm, 5,440 km)
  • Service ceiling: 48,000 ft (15,000 m)
  • Rate of climb: 3,400 ft/min (17 m/s)
  • Wing loading: 48 lb/ft² (234 kg/m²)
  • Thrust/weight: 0.32

Armament

  • Guns: 4 20 mm Hispano Mk.V cannons mounted in rear bomb bay (500 rounds/gun), or 2 0.30 in (7.62 mm) machine gun pods
  • Rockets: 2 unguided rocket pods with 37 2-inch (51 mm) rockets, or 2 Matra rocket pods with 18 SNEB 68 mm rockets each
  • Missiles: A variety of missiles can be carried according to mission requirements, e.g: 2 AS-30L air-to-surface missiles
  • Bombs: Total of 8,000 lb (3,628 kg) of payload can be mounted inside the internal bomb bay and on two underwing hardpoints, with the ability to carry a variety of bombs. Typically, the internal bomb bay can hold up to 9,500 lb (227 kg) bombs, or 6 1,000 lb (454 kg) bombs, or 1 4,000 lb (1,814 kg) bomb; while the pylons can hold 4 500 lb (227 kg) bombs, or 2 1,000 lb (454 kg) bombs.
  • Nuclear Weapons: in addition to conventional ordnance, the “Canberra” was also type-approved for tactical nuclear weapon delivery, including the Mk.7, B28 (Mod 2, 70 kiloton yield) and B57 (as part of a joint program with the United States) plus “Red Beard” and the WE.177A (Mod A, 10 kiloton yield) nuclear bombs. All nuclear weapons were carried internally.

References


  1. Photos: John Shupek, Copyright © 2002 Skytamer Images. All Rights Reserved
  2. Wikipedia, English Electric “Canberra”


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