Canadian Car and Foundry Harvard Mk.IV
Single-engine Two-seat Trainer, Canada

Archive Photos 1

Canadian Car & Foundry Harvard Mk.IV (CF-HWU, s/n 20432) circa 9/22/2003 at the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, Mount Hope, Ontario, Canada (Photos by John Shupek)

Canadian Car & Foundry Harvard Mk.IV (CF-UUU, c/n CCF4-4, RCAF-213) circa 9/22/2003 at the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, Mount Hope, Ontario, Canada (Photos by John Shupek)

Canadian Car & Foundry Harvard Mk.IV (C-FVMG, s/n 20412, c/n CCF3-203) circa 9/22/2003 at the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, Mount Hope, Ontario, Canada (Photos by John Shupek)

Canadian Car & Foundry Harvard Mk.IV (CF-UZW, RCAF-431, c/n CCF4-422) circa 9/22/2003 at the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, Mount Hope, Ontario, Canada (Photos by John Shupek)

1952 Canadian Car & Foundry Harvard Mk. IV (N45918/RCAF 918, s/n CCF4-246) circa 10/1/1989 at the Northrop 50 ’N ’Flying Family Day and Airshow, Palmdale, California (35mm photo © John Shupek)

Series Overview 2

The North American AT-6 Texan was a single-engine advanced trainer aircraft used to train fighter pilots of the United States Army Air Forces, United States Navy, Royal Air Force and other air forces of the British Commonwealth during World War II. The North American AT-6 Texan was first produced in 1939 and was similar to and eventually replaced the North American BC-1A basic combat trainer when the Basic Combat classification was abandoned. The USAAC designated it as the "AT-6", the US Navy the "SNJ", and British Commonwealth air forces, the "Harvard", the name it is best known by outside of the United States. The North American AT-6 Texan is known by a variety of designations depending on the model and operating air force. These may be summarized as follows:

North American AT-6 (Harvard II)

North American AT-6A (SNJ-3)

North American AT-6B

North American AT-6C (SNJ-4 and Harvard IIA)

North American AT-6D (SNJ-5 and Harvard III)

Design and Development 2

The Texan originated from the North American NA-16 prototype (first flown on April 1, 1935) which, modified as the NA-26, was submitted as an entry for a USAAC Basic Combat aircraft competition in March, 1937. The first model went in to production and 180 were supplied to the USAAC as the BC-1 and 400 to the RAF as the Harvard I. The US Navy received 16 modified aircraft, designated the SNJ-1, and a further 61 as the SNJ-2 with a different engine.

A further 92 BC-1A and three BC-2 aircraft were built before the shift to the advanced trainer designation, AT-6, which was equivalent to the BC-1A. The differences between the AT-6 and the BC-1 were new outer wing panels with a swept forward trailing edge, squared-off wingtips and a triangular rudder, producing the definitive Texan appearance. After a change to the rear of the canopy, the AT-6 was designated the Harvard II for RAF/RCAF orders and 1,173 were supplied by purchase or Lend Lease, mostly operating in Canada as part of the Empire Air Training Scheme.

Next came the AT-6A which was based on the NA-77 design and was powered by the Pratt & Whitney R-1340-49 Wasp radial engine. The USAAF received 1,549 and the US Navy 270 (as the SNJ-3). The AT-6B was built for gunnery training and could mount a 0.30 in machine gun on the forward fuselage. It utilized the R-1340-AN-1 engine which was to become the standard for the remaining T-6 production. Canada’s Noorduyn Aviation built a R-1340-AN-1 powered version of the AT-6A which was supplied to the USAAF as the AT-16 (1,500 aircraft) and the RAF/RCAF as the Harvard IIB (2,485 aircraft), some of which also served with the Fleet Air Arm and Royal Canadian Navy.

In late 1937 Mitsubishi purchased two NA-16s as technology demonstrators and possibly a licence to build more. However the aircraft developed by Watanabe/Kyushu as the K10W1 (Allied code name Oak) bore no more than a superficial resemblance to the North American design. It featured a full monocoque fuselage as opposed to the steel tube fuselage of the T-6 and NA-16 family of aircraft, as well as being of smaller dimensions overall and had no design details in common with the T-6. It was used in very small numbers by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1942 onwards. The IJA did not operate any, as they had other aircraft that they used for training. After the war the Japanese Air Self Defense Force operated Texans.

The NA-88 design resulted in 2,970 AT-6C Texans and 2,400 as the SNJ-4. The RAF received 726 of the AT-6C as the Harvard IIA. Modifications to the electrical system produced the AT-6D (3,713 produced) and SNJ-5 (1,357 produced). The AT-6D, redesignated the Harvard III, was supplied to the RAF (351 aircraft) and Fleet Air Arm (564 aircraft). Subsequently the NA-121 design with a completely clear rearmost section on the canopy, gave rise to 25 AT-6F Texans for the USAAF and 931, as the SNJ-6 for the US Navy. The ultimate version, the Harvard 4, was produced by Canada Car and Foundry during the 1950s, and supplied to the RCAF, USAF and Bundeswehr. A total of 15,495 T-6s of all variants were built.

Operational History 2

During the Korean War and to a lesser extent, the Vietnam war, T-6s were pressed into service as forward air control aircraft. These aircraft were designated T-6 "Mosquito"s. The RAF used the Harvard in Kenya against the Mau Mau in the 1950s where they operated with 20 lb bombs and machine guns against the gangs. Some operations took place at altitudes around 20,000 ft ASL. A Harvard was the longest-serving RAF aeroplane, with an example, taken on strength in 1945, still serving in the 1990s (as a chase plane for helicopter test flights - a role the Short Tucano’s high stall speed was ill-suited for). The T-6G was also used in a light attack or counter insurgency role by France during the Algerian war in special Escadrilles d’Aviation Légère d’Appui (EALA), armed with machine guns, bombs and rockets. At its peak there were 38 EALAs active. The largest unit was the Groupe d’Aviation Légère d’Appui 72, which consisted of up to 21 EALAs. From 1961 to 1975, Portugal, also, used hundreds of T-6G in the counter insurgency role during the Portuguese Colonial War. During this war, almost all the Portuguese Air Force bases and air fields in Angola, Mozambique and Portuguese Guinea had a detachment of T-6G. In 1957-58, the Spanish Air Force used T-6 as COIN aircraft in the Ifni War, armed with machine guns, iron bombs and rockets, achieving an excellent reputation due to its reliability, safety record and resistance to damage.

Since the Second World War, the T-6 has been a regular participant at air shows, and was used in many movies. For example, in Tora! Tora! Tora! and The Final Countdown, converted single-seat T-6s painted in Japanese markings represent Mitsubishi Zeroes. The New Zealand Warbirds "Roaring 40s" aerobatic team use ex-Royal New Zealand Air Force Harvards. The Reno National Air Races also has a class specifically for the T-6 during the National Air Races each year.

Variants 2

North American BC Series

North American AT-6 Texan Series

Noorduyn AT-16 "Harvard" Series

T-6 Texan Series

SNJ Texan Series

"Harvard" Series


North American Designation

Operators 2

Specifications and Performance Data (AT-6D/SNJ-5) 3,4




Tail Unit

Landing Gear

Power Plant




Weights and Loadings



  1. Shupek, John. Photos via The Skytamer Archive, copyright © 1989 and 2009 Skytamer Images ( All Rights Reserved
  2. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. T-6 Texan 23 September 2009
  3. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. T-6 Variants, 23 September 2009
  4. Bridgman, Leonard (ed.). Jane’s All The World’s Aircraft 1945-46, London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company, Ltd., 1946, pp 294c - 295c


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