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Avro 621 “Tutor”
British single-engine biplane trainer


Archive Photos ¹


[Avro 621 “Tutor” (K.3215) on display 9/10/2002 at the Shuttleworth Collection (Photos by John Shupek copyright © 2002 Skytamer Images)]

[Avro 621 Tutor, biplane (Aeroplane Series with gilt border, John Player & Sons, 1926, 16 of 50)]

[Avro 621 Tutor, K1230 (Aeroplanes & Carriers, Amalgamated Press, 1936, UK, Card 12 of 32)]

[Avro 621 Tutor (K3215, G-AHSA), Airplane card: 1977 “The Golden Age of Flying”, Doncella Cigars, UK (The Skytamer Archive)]

Overview ²


Avro 621 Tutor

  • Role: Trainer
  • Manufacturer: Avro
  • Designer: Roy Chadwick
  • First flight: 1930
  • Introduction: 1933
  • Retired: 1941
  • Primary user: Royal Air Force
  • Number built: 606
  • Variants: Avro 626, PWS-18

A.V. Roe's Type 621 Tutor was a two-seat British radial-engined biplane from the inter-war period. It was a simple but rugged initial trainer that was used by the Royal Air Force as well as many other air arms worldwide.

Design and Development ²


The Avro Model 621 was designed by Roy Chadwick as an Avro private venture metal replacement for the Avro 504. Conceived as a light initial pilot trainer, the biplane design featured heavily staggered equal span, single-bay wings; the construction was based on steel tubing (with some wooden components in the wing ribs) with doped linen covering. A conventional, fixed divided main undercarriage with tail skid was used in all but the latest aircraft, which had a tail wheel.

The Model 621 was powered either by a 155 hp (116 kW) Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose or Armstrong Siddeley Lynx IV (180 hp/130 kW) or IVC (240 hp/179 kW) engine; later Lynx-powered models had the engine enclosed in a Townend ring cowling. The Mongoose powered version was called the 621 Trainer and the more numerous Lynx-engined aircraft the Tutor. The Tutor also differed by having a more rounded rudder.

The first flight of the prototype (G-AAKT) was in September 1929, piloted by Avro chief test pilot Captain Harry Albert "Sam" Brown.

Operational History ²


Production was started against an order for three from the Irish Free State and 21 Trainers from the Royal Air Force. The RAF required a replacement for the wooden Avro 504, and after three years of trials against other machines such as the Hawker Tomtit it was adopted as their basic trainer, supplanting the 504 in 1933 and remaining in this role until 1939. As well as the 21 Trainers a total of 381 Tutors and 15 Avro 646 Sea Tutors were eventually ordered by the RAF. RAF units to operate the type in quantity included the Royal Air Force College, the Central Flying School and Nos. 2, 3, 4 and 5 Flying Training Schools.

Subsequently, the Model 621 achieved substantial foreign sales. A.V. Roe and Co exported 29 for the Greek Air Force, six for the Royal Canadian Air Force, five for the Kwangsi Air Force, three for the Irish Air Force (where it was known as the Triton) and two for each of the South African and Polish Air Forces. In addition 57 were license built in South Africa, and three license built by the Danish Naval Shipyard.

A total of 30 Tutors were exported to the Greek Air Force and at least 61 were license built in Greece by KEA. A number of Greek Tutors was incorporated in combat squadrons after Greece's entrance in WWII, used as army co-operation aircraft.

Known for its good handling, the type was often featured at air shows. Over 200 Avro Tutors and five Sea Tutors remained in RAF service at the beginning of the Second World War.

The 621 was designed as a military trainer and few reached the civil registers. In the 1930s, in addition to 10 prototypes and demonstrators, two were used by Alan Cobham's Flying Circus and two trainers were retired from the RAF into private use. One 621 was used from new by Australian National Airways. After the war another four ex-RAF 621s appeared on the civil register.

Variants ²


  • Avro 621 Trainer (Mongoose powered): Two-seat primary training aircraft.
  • Avro 621 Tutor (Lynx powered): Two-seat primary training aircraft.
  • Avro 621 Tutor II: One aircraft was modified into a two bay biplane.
  • Avro 621 survey version: Three built and served in what was the Tanganyika.
  • Avro 646 Sea Tutor: Two-seat seaplane fitted with twin floats, 15 built

Operators ²


  • Czechoslovakia: Czechoslovak Air Force pilots operated at least one aircraft in 310 Fighter Squadron RAF.
  • Denmark: Royal Danish Navy operated five aircraft.
  • Canada: Royal Canadian Air Force operated six aircraft.
  • China: Chinese Nationalist Air Force (Kwangsi Airforce ) operated five aircraft.
  • Iraq: Iraqi Air Force operated three aircraft.
  • Ireland: Irish Air Corps operated three aircraft.
  • Greece: Hellenic Air Force operated about 90 aircraft.
  • Poland: Polish Air Force received two aircraft.
  • South Africa: South African Air Force operated 60 aircraft.
  • United Kingdom: Royal Air Force received 417 aircraft.

Survivors ²


The sole surviving Avro 621 (G-AHSA) is included the Shuttleworth Collection at Old. G-AHSA was used for communication duties during the Second World War, struck off December 1946 and purchased by Wing Commander Heywood. After suffering engine failure in the early stages of the filming of “Reach for the Sky”, it was purchased by the Shuttleworth Collection and restored to flying condition. Up to the end of 2003, G-AHSA was still flying as K3215 in RAF trainer yellow. Since January 2004 it has flown painted as K3241 in the colors of the Central Flying School.

Specifications (Avro 621 Tutor with Lynx IVC) ³


Manufacturers:

  • A.V. Roe and Co Ltd, Newton Heath, Manchester; and Hamble Aerodrome, near Southampton, Hants
  • Orlogsvaerftet (Danish Naval Shipyard),Copenhagen, Denmark
  • South African Air Force, Aircraft and Artillery Depot, Pretoria

Powerplant Options:

  • 1 × 155 hp Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose IIIC (designated Mongoose IIIA in civil machines)
  • 1 × 215 hp Armstrong Siddeley Lynx IV
  • 1 × 215 hp Armstrong Siddeley Lynx IVC

General Characteristics

  • Crew: Two (student & instructor)
  • Length: 26 ft 4½ in
  • Wingspan: 34 ft 0 in
  • Height: 9 ft 7 in
  • Wing area: 301 ft²
  • Tare weight: 1,844 lb
  • All-up weight: 2,493 lb
  • Powerplant: 1 × Armstrong Siddeley Lynx IVC, 215 hp

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 120 mph
  • Cruise speed: 97 mph
  • Range: 250 mi
  • Service ceiling: 16,000 ft
  • Rate of climb: 910 ft/min

References


  1. Shupek, John. Avro 621 Tutor photos and 3-view drawing via The Skytamer Archive, Copyright © 2002 Skytamer Images. All Rights Reserved
  2. Wikipedia. Avro Tutor
  3. Jackson, A.J. Avro Aircraft since 1908, 2nd edition. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1990. ISBN 0-85177-797-X. pp. 285-293

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