Beechcraft 1900C "ExecuLiner"
United States — Twin-turboprop commuter/cargo airliner and executive transport
Beech 1900C "ExecuLiner" (N19NG) at the 1995 Hawthorne Air Faire, Hawthorne, CA
The Beechcraft 1900 is a 19-passenger, pressurized twin-engine turboprop airplane manufactured by the Beechcraft Division of the Raytheon Company (now Hawker Beechcraft). It was designed as and is primarily used as a regional airliner. It is also used as a freight aircraft, corporate transport, and by the United States military and other governments.
The aircraft is designed to carry passengers in all weather conditions from airports with relatively short runways. It is capable of flying well in excess of 600 miles (970 km), although few operators use its full fuel range. In terms of the number of aircraft built and its continued use by many passenger airlines and other users, it is one of the most popular 19-passenger airliners in history.
- Role: Regional airliner, cargo, and corporate aircraft
- Manufacturer: Beechcraft
- First flight: September 3, 1982
- Introduced: February 1983
- Primary user: Great Lakes Airlines
- Produced: 1982-2002
- Number built: 695
- Unit cost US$: 4.995 million (2001)
- Developed from" Beechcraft Super King Air
- Variants: C-12J
The 1900 is Beechcraft's third regional airliner. The Beechcraft Model 18 was a 6 to 11 passenger utility aircraft produced from 1937 to 1970, used by the military, airlines, charter operations, corporations for executive transport, and freight carriers. The Beech 18, or "Twin Beech" as it was often called, was hugely successful, with a production run of over 30 years, more than 9,000 built and more approved modifications than any other airplane in history. It remains in common use in numerous roles including freight aircraft and skydivers' jump plane. The 15-passenger Beechcraft Model 99 Airliner was designed to replace the Beech 18, and was produced from 1966 to 1986. It was also commercially successful and remains in common use with freight airlines such as Ameriflight.
The Beechcraft 1900's design lineage began in 1949 with the Beechcraft Model 50 "Twin Bonanza", a 5 passenger, reciprocating engine utility aircraft designed for the U.S. Army. A larger passenger cabin was added to the Twin Bonanza's airframe, and called the Model 65 "Queen Air." This aircraft was, in turn, further modified by adding turboprop engines and cabin pressurization, and named the Model 90 "King Air." A stretched version of the King Air was later developed and designated the Model 200 "Super King Air". Beechcraft developed the Beechcraft 1900 directly from the Beechcraft Super King Air.
The 1900 first flew on September 3, 1982, with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification awarded in November 1983 under Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) 41C airworthiness standards. Like the 1900, the 1900C was certified under SFAR 41C, but the later 1900D version was certified to FAR Part 23 "Commuter Category" standards.
The 1900 entered service in February 1984, with the first ExecuLiner corporate version delivered in 1985. A total of 695 Beechcraft 1900 aircraft were built, making the airliner the best-selling 19-passenger airliner in history. With market trends favoring larger 50- to 90-seat regional jets, Raytheon ended production of the Beechcraft 1900 in October 2002. Many airlines continue to fly the 1900.
Since the 1900 is derived from the King Air, all 1900s share certain characteristics with that aircraft. Cockpit controls and operations are similar to those of the King Air. While Federal Aviation Regulations require two pilots for airline operations, the 1900 is designed and certificated for single-pilot operation in corporate or cargo settings, as is the King Air.
- The 1900 is powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A turboprop engines. The 1900 and 1900C use two PT6A-65B engines, each flat rated at 1,100 shaft horsepower. The 1900D uses two PT6A-67D engines, each rated at 1,279 shaft horsepower.
- The propellers are manufactured by Hartzell, with four blades on each propeller. The blades are made from composite materials.
- Jet A is the recommended fuel; however the engines are also approved for limited operations on other types of jet fuel or aviation-grade gasoline.
- The 1900D cruises at about 285 knots (528 km/h) true airspeed (328 mph or 528 km/h). Ordinary trip lengths range from 100 to 600 miles (20 minutes to two hours), but with full fuel tanks, the aircraft is capable of flying well in excess of 1,000 nautical miles (1,900 km). Airlines often prefer the 1900 over jet aircraft for shorter routes due to its fuel efficiency, and because trip times are not significantly longer on distances up to 300 miles (480 km).
- The Beechcraft 1900 can operate safely on relatively short airstrips. It can take off and land on grass and rough runways.
- The airplane is certified to fly up to an altitude of 25,000 feet (7,600 m) above mean sea level. The cabin is pressurized, and the aircraft is equipped with emergency oxygen masks for the pilots and passengers in the event the cabin loses pressure.
- It is designed to operate in most weather conditions, including icing conditions, and it is usually equipped with weather radar to help pilots avoid severe weather.
- Raytheon offers the option of configuring the aircraft with a lavatory, using space otherwise available for passenger seating and cargo storage. Because most flights are less than two hours' duration, most airlines choose to configure the aircraft with the additional seating and cargo space, forgoing the lavatory.
- The Beechcraft 1900 is used by the FAA for its Airline Transport Pilot knowledge test section on operating and performance data. Pilots are tested on center of gravity calculations, takeoff and landing performance and en route fuel burn.
ICAO Aircraft Designator
- The ICAO designator for the 1900 is B190. This is used in ATC flight plans and pilot reports, as well as for aircraft type identification on ATC radar.
The original design is known simply as the Beechcraft 1900. It features two "airstair" passenger boarding doors: one near the tail of the aircraft much like the smaller King Airs, and a second at the front just behind the cockpit. It has a small cargo door near the tail for access to the baggage compartment, which is behind the passenger compartment. Only three airframes were built, with "UA" serial numbers of UA-1, UA-2, and UA-3. UA-1 and UA-2 are stored at a Beechcraft facility in Wichita, Kansas. As of September 2006, UA-3 is in service with Bolivia's Ministry of National Defence in La Paz.
It immediately became clear that two airstair doors were redundant on an aircraft holding only 19 passengers. Beechcraft kept the front airstair, but eliminated the aft airstair door, installing an enlarged cargo door in its place. The changed aircraft was renamed 1900C. Other than the redesigned door layout, the early 1900Cs were substantially similar to the original 1900s. These were assigned serial numbers starting with the letters UB. A total of 74 UB version were built, many of which remain in service.
Aircraft in the UA and UB series employ a bladder-type fuel tank system in the wings. Later 1900Cs use a "wet wing" fuel system: entire sections of the wing are sealed off for use as fuel tanks. This design change allowed more fuel to be stored, substantially increasing the 1900C's range. The wet wing 1900Cs were assigned serial numbers beginning with "UC." These aircraft are also referred to as 1900C-1s. The wet wings proved popular, and the UC is the most common version of the low-ceiling 1900, with 174 UC airframes built.
Raytheon also manufactured six 1900C aircraft for use by the U.S. military. These were assigned "UD" serial numbers, UD-1 through UD-6.
While the 1900C had become a popular regional airliner, Beechcraft undertook a substantial redesign of the aircraft, and in 1991 introduced a new version called the 1900D.
The 1900 and 1900C, like most 19-passenger airliners and business jets, have fairly small passenger cabins, with ceilings so low that passengers cannot walk through the interior without bending forward. The 1900D was designed to remedy this by providing a "stand-up cabin," which would allow most passengers to walk upright. It is the only 19-seat airliner with this feature.
Because the taller passenger cabin adds both weight and drag to the airplane, other elements of the 1900D were also changed. More powerful engines and modified propellers were installed, winglets were added to reduce drag and increase the wings' efficiency, and the tail was made larger in response to the more powerful engines. The cockpit was updated with an Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS). The 1900D was certified under the then-new FAR Part 23 "Commuter Category" standards, which had replaced the earlier SFAR 41C. Since the UD serial numbers were already in use by the military 1900s, the 1900D airplanes have serial numbers beginning with UE. The 1900D is the most popular version of the airliner, with 438 of the 1900D built.
The U.S. military designation for the Beechcraft 1900C is C-12J. This is a variant of the C-12 Huron, which is the most common designation for military King Airs. The C-12J includes the 6 UD series Beechcraft 1900s built for the U.S. military, as well as other 1900C's in U.S. military service.
Examples of C-12J aircraft in military service include one used for GPS jamming tests at the 586th Flight Test Squadron, Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, another based at the 517th Airlift Squadron, Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska, and three based at the 459th Airlift Squadron, Yokota Air Base, Japan. The U.S. Army operates both C-12J and 1900D aircraft along with other C-12 (King Air) aircraft.
King Air ExecuLiner
The King Air ExecuLiner was a marketing name for a corporate version of the Beechcraft 1900C.
- Other airlines operate Beechcraft 1900s in Africa which include Air Namibia and Fly540.
- The last 16 Beechcraft 1900D airliners built were sold to Eagle Airways to provide regional services for Air New Zealand.
- According to Flight International magazine, 451 1900s remain in airline service as of August, 2006, as follows:
- 138 Raytheon Beech 1900Cs. Major operators include: Alpine Air (12) and Ameriflight (20). Some 45 other airlines operate smaller numbers of the type.
- 313 Raytheon Beech 1900Ds. Major operators include: Air Georgian (19), Avior Airlines (11), Buddha Air (5), Central Mountain Air (11), Eagle Airways (17 (18)), Great Lakes Airlines (30), Gulfstream International Airlines (26), National Airways (12), Travira Air (15). Wasaya Airways (5). Some 60 other airlines also operate the type in smaller numbers
Users and Operators
Users Airline, Variants, Number, Country
- Ad Astral Aviation Services, 1900C & 1900D, 2, Australia
- Air Georgian, 1900D, 20, Canada
- Air Labrador, 1900D, 2, Canada
- Air Namibia, 1900D, 3, Namibia
- Air Serv International, 1900C, —;, United States
- Alpine Air, 1900C & 1900D, 1900C: 12 1900D: 1, United States
- Ameriflight, 1900C, 12, United States
- Avanti Air, 1900D, 2, Germany
- Avior Airlines, 1900D, 11, Venezuela
- Bering Air, 1900D, 2, United States
- Buddha Air, 1900D & 1900C, 1900D: 5 1900C: 2, Nepal
- Central Mountain Air, 1900D, 14, Canada
- Colgan Air, 1900D, 1, United States
- Chalair Aviation, 1900D, 3, France
- Eagle Airways, 1900D, 18, New Zealand
- Era Aviation, 1900D, 3, United States
- EVAS (Exploits Valley Air Service), 1900D, 1, Canada
- FlyJet, 1900D, 3, France
- Gulfstream Aviation Corpjet, 1900D, 26, United States
- Great Lakes Airlines, 1900D, 30, United States
- Medavia, 1900D, 2, United States
- National Airways, 1900D & 1900C, 1900D: 12 1900C: 5, South Africa
- Nextjet, 1900D, —, Sweden
- North Cariboo Air, 1900D & 1900C, 1900D: 2 1900C: 2, Canada
- Pacific Coastal Airlines, 1900C, 6, Canada
- Pineapple Air 1900C & 1900D, 1900C: 2 1900D: 1, Bahamas
- Portugalia Airlines, 1900D, 2, Portugal
- Private Wings Flugcharter, 1900D, 2, Germany
- Pronto Airways, 1900C, —, Canada
- Sunwest Aviation, 1900D, 5, Canada
- SAEREO, 1900C, 2, Ecuador
- Skylink Express, 1900C, 6, Canada
- TAC Colombia, 1900D, 1, Colombia
- Searca, 1900D & 1900C, 15, Colombia
- Travira Air, 1900D, 6, Indonesia
- Wasaya Airways, 1900D, 5, Canada
Military and Government Operators
- Australia: Defence Science and Technology Organization
- Bolivia: Ministry of National Defence
- Colombia: Colombian National Police
- Republic of China
- Thailand: Royal Thai Army
- United Arab Emirates
- United Nations
- United States: United States Air Force, United States Army
- Mali Department of Defense
Accidents and Incidents
- January 3, 1992: CommutAir Flight 4821, a Beech 1900C operating for USAir Express was flying from Plattsburgh to Saranac Lake when it crashed into wooded mountaintop as it was landing at Adirondack Regional Airport. Of the 4 people onboard (2 passengers and 2 crew) 2 were killed while the other 2 sustained serious injuries. The cause of the crash was determined to be pilot error in establishing a stabilized approach and cross-checking instruments. Factors related to the accident were: weather conditions and possible precipitation static interference, caused by inadequate grounding between the radome and fuselage that could have resulted in unreliable glide slope indications."
- December 7, 1995: Air St. Martin 1900D drifted off course and crashed into a mountain in Haiti, killing all 21 people on board.
- November 19, 1996: United Express 1900C collided on a runway with a Beechcraft King Air at Quincy Regional Airport in Illinois, killing all 14 people on board both aircraft.
- December 28, 1998: A Business Express Airlines 1900C crashed during a training flight when the instructor refused to take back the controls when the students became disorientated due to heavily stressing conditions imposed by the instructor, against the company's flight manual. This conclusion was controversial, as an investigation by the Airline Pilots Association showed that there were many indications of catastrophic airframe failure, not due to pilot error.
- August 12, 1999: Regionnair 1900D crashed on approach to Sept-Îles Airport in Quebec due to pilot error; the pilot was killed while three others were injured.
- January 8, 2003: Air Midwest Flight 5481 1900D crashed into a hangar just after takeoff from Charlotte/Douglas International Airport in North Carolina, killing all 21 people on board.
- August 26, 2003: Colgan Air Flight 9446: a Colgan Air Beech 1900D operated for US Airways Express hit the water shortly after taking off from Yarmouth, Massachusetts. Both pilots died.
- March 15, 2008: Wings Aviation 1900D crashed while attempting to land at Obudu, Cross River State, Nigeria killing all 3 crew members.
- May 2, 2008: South Sudan Air Connection 1900 crashed, killing 22 people including Southern Sudan's Minister of Defence.
Specifications (Beechcraft 1900D)
- Crew: 1 (2 in U.S. airline operations)
- Capacity: 19 passengers + 2 crew
- Length: 57 ft 10 in (17.63 m)
- Wingspan: 58 ft 0 in (17.67 m)
- Height: 15 ft 6 in (4.72 m)
- Empty weight: 10,650 lb (4,831 kg)
- Max takeoff weight: 17,120 lb (7,668 kg)
- Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-67D turboprops, 1,279 shaft horsepower (955 kW) each
- Fuel Capacity: 4,484 lb.
- Fuel Type: Jet A recommended, others usable.
- Maximum speed: Maximum operating speed 248 knots (459 km/h) IAS (285 mph, 459 km/h) to 13,200 ft (4,020 m).
- Cruise speed: 260 knots (True Airspeed) (300 mph, 480 km/h)
- Stall speed: 84 knots (IAS) (97 mph, 156 km/h)
- Range: 1,498 NM (1,724 mi, 2,776 km)
- Service ceiling: 25,000 ft (maximum certificated altitude) (7,600 m)
- Rate of climb: ~2,000 ft/min (~10 m/s)
- Rockwell Collins EFIS-84 Electronic Flight Instrument System.
- Photos: John Shupek, Copyright © 2009 Skytamer Images. All Rights Reserved
- Wikepedia. Beechcraft 1900, 28 November 2009
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