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Advance Aircraft Company Waco “Ten”
Single-engine two-seat biplane


Archive Photos


Waco “Ten” 3-view Drawings (Copyright © 2014 Skytamer Images) [1,2,3]

Waco “Ten” Historical Photos [6]

1927 Waco “Ten” (Model 10, N940, s/n 751) c.1998 on display at the Old Rhinebeck Aero Droned, Rhinebeck, New York (photo © 1998 Skytamer Images by John Shupek) [2]

1927 Waco “Ten” (Model 10, N940, s/n 751) c.2003 on display at the Old Rhinebeck Aero Droned, Rhinebeck, New York (photo © 2003 Skytamer Images by John Shupek) [2]

Advance Aircraft Company 1928 Waco “Ten” (Model GXE, C-GAFD, s/n 1521) c.2003 on display at the Canada Aviation Museum, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (Photos © 2003 Skytamer Images by John Shupek) [2]

Advance Aircraft Company (WACO), Troy, Ohio [7]


In October 1919 George ‘Buck’ Weaver and six others registered the Weaver Aircraft Company at Lorain, Ohio. They began to market the Weaver “Cootie” two-seat parasol monoplane, but quickly switched to “Waco” as initials for the company. In 1923 they reorganized as the Advance Aircraft Company at Troy, Ohio, with different management, to build Waco 7, 9 and Ten 3-seat biplanes with a choice of engines ranging from 85 to 220-hp). During 1928 they claimed their ‘production greater than all other US commercial airplane manufacturers combined’. During 1929, they renamed her company as “The Waco Aircraft Company” and concentrated on the production of biplanes in the 2-seat to 5-seat class, using three-letter codes to identify what by 1940 exceeded 110 different models. In 1935 they were still the largest United States aircraft producer, with 55 distributors and 175 dealers in the United States and representatives and 26 countries, with exports being over 40% of their total sales. Chief families of aircraft included open tandem 2-seat aerobatic trainers and 4-seat cabin tourers. Later they introduced models with nosewheel from late 1938. From December 1941 Waco produced cabin biplanes of 16 types that were impressed into military service with designations UC-72 to UC-7Q, while they produced gliders designated CG-3A training gliders and CG-4A, CG-13A and CG-15A transport gliders. Waco and built 1,075 of a total of the 12,394 CG-4A assault gliders and 427 CG-15A gliders, of which one even included 2 Jacob R-755 radial engines. In 1946 Waco developed the “Aristocrat” cabin monoplane, but liquidation of the company followed during 1947. Production rights to the Waco “Aristocrat” were acquired by the O'Neil Airplane Company, of Carlisle, Illinois, which was formed in 1962 to produce and develop the Waco W “Aristocrat”.

Advance Aircraft Company Waco “Ten” (GXE) [7, 8]


  • Waco 10
  • Role: Light passenger transport
  • Manufacturers: Advance Aircraft Company and Waco Aircraft Company
  • Designer: Charles Meyers
  • First flight: 1927
  • Introduction: 1927
  • Produced: 1927-1933
  • Number built: 1,623
  • Unit cost: $2,145 minus engine & prop

The following article is from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1927”:

“The Waco 10/GXE/Waco O series was a range of three-seat open-cockpit biplanes built by the Advance Aircraft Company, later the Waco Aircraft Company. The latest model, Waco “Ten,” now being produced, has some very interesting features. The 90-hp Curtiss 0X-5 engine has been entirely enclosed within the cowling, and after a long series of comparative tests, the “Ten” shows a high speed of about 10 miles an hour more than the “Nine,”, takes off in the same distance in time, and climbs even faster. The undercarriage is of the split type and incorporates hydraulic oleo suspension and has no rubber or parts of any kind that wear or require attention. The leaf spring and tail skid has no shock-absorber cord and is fitted with a detachable shoe. At the passenger seat, the fuselage is wider than the “Nine,” and a large door is fitted to the passenger cockpit, with a double width walk on the wing root. The cockpit cowling is built higher and the windshields are so placed as to afford more protection for the passengers and pilot. The all-round comfort of the cockpits has been improved. The adjustable tail plane is operated by a control at the side of the pilot, and it is possible to control the machine for-and-aft solely by the tailplane, totally disregarding the elevators. The ailerons are differentially operated in a very light to control. All controls, with the exception of the rudder, are operated by direct push-and-pull rods. The main fuel tank holds 37 gallons and a center-section tank holding an additional 17½ gallons can be supplied, giving sufficient fuel for 5½ and 8½ hours respectively. Either the Curtiss OX-5, the OXX-6 or the Wright “Whirlwind” engines can be supplied in the production models. [8]

Design and Development [7]


The Waco “Ten” was a larger span development of the Waco 9, both single-engined three-seat single-bay biplanes constructed around steel-tube frames. The wing covering was fabric, and both upper and lower planes carried ailerons, which were strut linked. The two passengers sat side by side in a cockpit under the upper wing and ahead of the pilot, who had a separate cockpit. It had a split-axle fixed undercarriage and a tailwheel. The main undercarriage was fitted with hydraulic shock absorbers, unusual at the time on a light aircraft. The fin could be trimmed on the ground to offset engine torque, and the tailplane could be trimmed in flight. Initially it was powered by a Curtiss OX-5 water-cooled 90° V-8 engine producing 90-hp (67 kW).

Its first flight was in 1927. It was numerically the most important type to be built by Waco, with at least 1,623 built over a period of 7 years from 1927 to 1933 and was fitted with a very large variety of engines of radial and V configurations.

Operational History [7]


The Waco 10 turned out to have excellent handling, and there was a ready supply of war-surplus Curtiss engines. It was widely used for the popularization of aeronautics through barnstorming and joyrides, and was also much used as a trainer and by small operators for charter flights.

Variants [7]


In 1928, after the Waco 10 had entered production, Waco changed its designation system so that the basic model 10, powered by a 90-hp (67 kW) Curtiss OX-5 engine became the GXE. The OX-5 was also used in the Waco 9, and this led to the confusing popular description of both aircraft as Waco 90, after the power. Later aircraft used a three-letter designation, the first denoting the engine, the second, “S” or “T” meaning “Straight” or “Tapered” wing and the final “O” indicating it belongs to the “Waco O” series for open cockpit. An “A” suffix indicated an armed variant intended for export.

Early NamePost 1928 NamePopular/
Alternative Name
EnginePower (hp)Power (kW)
10GXE90Curtiss OX-59067
10-WASO220-TWright J-5220164
 ATO Wright J-5220164
 BSOBS-165Wright R-540A165123
 BSO-A Wright R-540A165123
 CSOC-225Wright R-760225168
 CTO Wright R-760225168
10-HDSO Hispano-Suiza 8A or E150/180112/134
 HSO Packard DR-980 Diesel225168
 HTO Packard DR-980 Diesel225168
 JTO Wright R-975300225
 JYO Wright R-975300225
 KSO Kinner K-510075
 OSO Kinner C-5210157
 PSO Jacobs LA-1140/170127/104
 QSO Continental A-70165123
 RSO Warner Scarab11082
 240-A Continental W-670240179

Apart from the Curtiss and Hispano-Suiza, all of these engines were air-cooled radials. Other engines were fitted experimentally, without unique designations, including Rausie, Siemans, and the 115-hp (86 kW) Milwaukee Tank engine. This was an air-cooled version of the Curtiss OX-5, and was intended as an aircraft engine.

Two mailplane derivatives from the “Waco O” series (types JYM and JWM) were single seaters with a 14 inch stretch in the fuselage.

Specifications Waco “Ten ” (GXE) [7]


General Characteristics
  • Crew: one
  • Capacity: two passengers
  • Payload: 825 pounds (including pilot, fuel and oil) (374 kg)
  • Length: 23 ft 6 in (7.16 m)
  • Wingspan: 30 ft 7 in (9.32 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 0 in (2.74 m)
  • Airfoil: Aeromarine 2A
  • Empty weight: 1199 lb (545 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 2025 lb (920 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Curtiss OX-5, 90 hp (67 kW)

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 97 mph (156 km/h)
  • Cruise speed: 84 mph (135 km/h)
  • Stall speed: 37 mph (60 km/h)
  • Range: 380 miles (610 km)
  • Rate of climb: 500 ft/min (2.54 m/s)

References


  1. Shupek, John. Waco Ten 3-View Drawings via The Skytamer Archive. Copyright © 2014 Skytamer Images, Whittier, CA. All Rights Reserved
  2. Shupek, John. Waco Ten photos via The Skytamer Archive. Copyright © 1998, 2003 Skytamer Images, Whittier, CA. All Rights Reserved
  3. Bradley, Samuel Stewart. “Aircraft and Engine Design Section: Advance Aircraft Company Waco “Ten” with Curtiss OX-5 Engine” 3-view drawing” “Aircraft Year Book 1928”. Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce of America, Inc. New York City, NY: 1928. p. 331. Print.
  4. Bradley, Samuel Stewart. “Aircraft and Engine Design Section: Advance Aircraft Company Waco “Ten” with Wright “Whirlwind” Engine” 3-view drawing” “Aircraft Year Book 1928”. Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce of America, Inc. New York City, NY: 1928. p. 330. Print.
  5. Bradley, Samuel Stewart. “Aircraft and Engine Design Section: Advance Aircraft Company Waco “Ten” with Ryan-Siemens Engine” 3-view drawing” “Aircraft Year Book 1928”. Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce of America, Inc. New York City, NY: 1928. p. 332. Print.
  6. Bradley, Samuel Stewart. “chapter III: Civil Aviation in the United States: Advance Aircraft Company Waco “Ten” Photos” “Aircraft Year Book 1928”. Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce of America, Inc. New York City, NY: 1928. p. 84. Print.
  7. Wikipedia. Waco Ten
  8. Grey, C. G. and Leonard Bridgman. “Waco: The Waco “Ten”. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1927. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company, Ltd., 1927. 278b-279b. Print.

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