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Avro 685 "York"
United Kingdom — four-engined high-wing monoplane transport


Archive Photos

Avro York (G-ANTK) at the Imperial War Museum Duxford, Cambridgeshire, England c.1994

Overview


  • Avro Type 685 York
  • Role: Transport
  • Manufacturer: Avro
  • Designed by: Roy Chadwick
  • First flight: 5 July 1942
  • Introduced: 1944
  • Retired: 1964
  • Status: Two examples on display
  • Primary users: Royal Air Force BOAC; British South American Airways; Skyways Ltd.
  • Produced: 1943-1946
  • Number built: 259 (including prototypes)
  • Developed from: Avro Lancaster

The Avro York was a British transport aircraft that was derived from the Second World War Lancaster heavy bomber, and used in both military and airliner roles between 1943 and 1964.

Design and Development


Designated the Avro type 685, development began in 1941. The design paired a new "squared-off" fuselage with the wings, tail and undercarriage of the Lancaster bomber. Production was undertaken by Avro with the hopes of sales to both the RAF and in the postwar civil airliner market. The prototype, LV626, was assembled by Avro's experimental flight department at Manchester's Ringway Airport and first flew there on 5 July 1942. It had initially been fitted with the twin fins and rudders of the Lancaster, but the increased fuselage side area forward of the wing compared to the Lancaster necessitated fitting a third central fin to retain adequate control and directional stability. Initial assembly and testing of production Yorks, mainly for the RAF, was at Ringway, later Yeadon (Leeds) and Woodford (Cheshire). One pattern aircraft was built at Victory Aircraft in Canada, but no further orders were received. Victory tooled up for 30 of those aircraft and built parts for five with one ultimately being completed about the time the war came to an end.

Operational History


The first civilian York (G-AGJA), initially built for the RAF as MW103, was delivered from Ringway to British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) in February 1944. In RAF Transport Command service, the York was used on the England–India route. Production orders included 50 civilian Yorks and 208 military versions to the RAF – many of which subsequently passed into civilian hands. During the Berlin Airlift, Yorks flew over 58,000 sorties – close to half of the British contribution, alongside the Douglas Dakota and Handley Page Hastings. During wartime years they also served as VIP transport aircraft.

In the postwar years, BOAC used Yorks on their Cairo to Durban service, which had previously been worked by Shorts flying-boats. They were also used by British South American Airways and by many independent airlines on both passenger and freight flights. When the Distant Early Warning Line (Dew Line) was being constructed in Canada in the late 1950s, the Avro York was introduced as a freighter by Associated Airways. At least one of the Yorks, CF-HAS, was retained, and was in service with Transair as late as 1961.

Specials

The Avro York was, like its Lancaster and Lincoln stablemates, a very versatile aircraft. One of the prototype Yorks, LV633, Ascalon, was custom-built as the personal transport and flying conference room for Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Ascalon was to be fitted with a special pressurized "egg" so that VIP passengers could be carried without their having to use an oxygen mask. Made of aluminum alloy it had eight perspex windows to reduce claustrophobia. It also had a telephone, instrument panel, drinking facilities and an ashtray with room for cigars, thermos flask, newspapers and books. Testing at RAE Farnborough found the "egg" to work satisfactorily. However, Avro said it was too busy with the new Lancaster IV (Avro Lincoln) work so it was never actually installed in Ascalon. It was considered for installation in the successor aircraft, a Douglas C-54B but the contractor Armstrong Whitworth decided it was impractical and the project was shelved. The whereabouts of "Churchill's Egg" is currently unknown.

MW104, Endeavour, flew to Australia in 1945 to become the personal aircraft of HRH The Duke of Gloucester, Australia's then Governor-General. It was operated by the Governor-General's Flight from 1945 to 1947, and it was the Royal Australian Air Force's only York. Another York (MW102) was fitted out as a "flying office" for the use of Viceroy of India and C-in-C South East Asia Command, Lord Mountbatten. During its first major overhaul by Avro at Manchester (Ringway) in 1945, the aircraft was re-painted a light duck egg green, a shade intended to cool down the aeroplane, instead of its former normal camouflage color scheme. South African leader Jan Smuts also used a York as personal transport. Air Chief Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory was killed 14 November 1944 while flying to his new posting in Ceylon to take command of Allied air operations in the Pacific, when York (MW126) struck a ridge in the French Alps in a blizzard, 30 mi (48 km) S of Grenoble, France. His wife Dora and eight aircrew also died. Wreckage found by a villager in June 1945.

Variants


  • York I — Four-engined civilian transport aircraft.

  • York C.I — Four-engined military transport aircraft for the RAF.

  • York C.II — One prototype York aircraft fitted with four Bristol Hercules XVI radial piston engines.

Operators


Military Operators

  • Australia: Royal Australian Air Force, Governor-General's Flight RAAF
  • France: French Air Force
  • South Africa: South African Air Force
  • United Kingdom: Royal Air Force

Civil Operators

  • Aden: Aden Airways
  • Argentina: Flota Aerea Mercante Argentina
  • Lebanon: Middle East Airlines
  • South Africa: South African Airways
  • United Kingdom: Air Charter, BOAC, British South American Airways, Dan Air, Eagle Aviation, Hunting Clan Air Transport, Scottish Airlines, Skyways, Surrey Flying Services

Survivors


While there are no flying examples of the Avro York, there are two complete examples on display. Currently at the RAF Museum Cosford Collection is Avro 685 York C1, TS798 (c/n 1223) which was initially intended for the RAF as TS798, but quickly passed to BOAC as G-AGNV and later to Skyways. It was previously preserved at Skyfame (Staverton), Brize Norton and Shawbury.

Another example on public display is held at the Imperial War Museum Duxford: Avro 685 York C1, G-ANTK is an ex-Dan-Air London aircraft. This airframe was built at Yeadon, near Leeds, in January 1946 and entered RAF service with No. 242 Squadron RAF as MW232 that August. It joined the fleet of Allied aircraft engaged in the Berlin Airlift and in May 1947, the York moved to 511 Squadron at Lyneham, where it served until May 1950 when it was used by Fairey Aviation for flight refueling research. It then retired to 12 Maintenance Unit at Kirkbride for storage prior to disposal. In July 1954, MW232 became G-ANTK with Dan-Air and it was used for freight work until its retirement in May 1964. It was ferried to Lasham Airfield and used as a bunk house by the local Air Scouts until 1974. The Dan-Air preservation group took it over and began to restore the aircraft in their spare time. In the mid-80s, Dan-Air realized the impracticality of the restoration work being undertaken and began negotiations with the Duxford Aviation Society. In May 1986, the aircraft was dismantled and on 23 May made its journey to Duxford on seven low-loaders.

Specifications (Avro York)


Type
  • Four-engined Transport
Wings
  • High-wing cantilever monoplane.
  • Wing in five main sections, comprising a center-section of parallel chord and thickness which is integral with the fuselage center-section, two tapering outer sections and two semi-circular wing tips.
  • Subsidiary wing units consist of detachable leading and training-edge sections of outer wing and center-section, flaps and ailerons.
  • Two-spar wing structure, each spar consisting of a top and bottom extruded boom bolted to a single thick gauge web-plate.
  • Ribs are aluminum alloy pressings suitably flanged and swaged for stiffness.
  • The entire wing is covered with a smooth aluminum-alloy skin.
  • Ailerons on outer wing sections have metal noses and are fabric-covered covered aft of the hinges.
  • The ailerons carry trimming tabs.
  • Split trailing-edge edge flaps between ailerons and fuselage.
Fuselage
  • An all-metal structure of roughly rectangular cross-section and built in five main sections.
  • The sections are of semi-monocoque construction.
  • The entire fuselage is covered with a flush-riveted metal skin. T
  • he floors and floor structure are reinforced and there are large hatches to enable bulky articles of freight to be loaded.
Tail Unit
  • Cantilever monoplane type with twin oval fins and rudders.
  • Tail-plane in two sections built up in a similar manner to the wings.
  • The rudders and fins are all metal, but the elevators are fabric-covered.
  • Trimming-tabs are provided on the elevators and rudders.
  • A central stabilizing fin is also fitted on top of the fuselage.
  • The tail-unit is mounted on the top surface of the fuselage.
Landing Gear
  • Retractable main wheels and fixed tail-wheel.
  • Main wheels are hydraulically retracted into the inboard engine nacelles, and hinged doors connected to the retracting gear close the apertures when the wheels are raised.
  • Track: 23 ft 9 in (7.3 m)
Power Plant
  • Four 1,280 hp Rolls-Royce Merlin 24 twelve-cylinder Vee liquid-cooled engines on welded steel tube nacelles bolted to the front spar of the center-section.
  • Three-bladed constant speed full-feathering airscrews.
  • Seven fuel tanks, three in each outer wing and one in the center of the wing over the fuselage.
  • Separate oil tanks in each nacelle.
Accommodation
  • The crew depends on whether the aeroplane is arranged to carry passengers or freight.
  • For passenger operation the crew normally consists of one or two pilots, navigator, wireless operator and steward.
  • The flying crew are housed in the front portion of the fuselage.
  • A variety of passenger arrangements can be provided depending on the range and consequent standard of comfort required and the number of people to be carried.
  • The number of passengers can vary from – say - 12 for extreme range with the maximum quantity of fuel, to 50 or 56 passengers for a practical range of 1,000 miles (1,600 km).
Dimensions
  • Span: 102 ft (31.1 m)
  • Length 78 ft (23.7 m)
  • Height: 20 ft (6.1 m)
  • Net wing area: 1,190 ft2 (110.5 m²)
  • Gross wing area: 1,297 ft² (120.5 m²)
Weights and Loadings (Freighter)
  • Weight empty: 38,000 lbs (17,250 kg)
  • Normal loaded weight: 65,000 lbs (29,500 kg)
  • Wing loading: 50.2 lbs/ft² (245 kg/m²)
  • Power loading: 12.7 lbs/hp (6.05 kg/hp)
Weights and Loadings (Passenger)
  • Weight empty: 40,000 lbs (18,150 kg)
  • Normal loaded weight: 65,000 lbs (29,500 kg)
  • Wing loading: 60.2 lbs/ft² (245 kg/m²)
  • Power loading: 12.7 lbs/hp (6.05 kg/hp)
Performance
  • Maximum speed: 290 mph (467 km/h)
  • Maximum range: approximately 3,100 miles (4,990 km)

References


  1. Photos, John Shupek, Copyright © 2009 Skytamer Images. All Rights Reserved
  2. Wikepedia. "Avro York." [Online] Available http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avro_York, 26 November 2009
  3. Bridgman, Leonard, "Avro: The Avro 685 York." Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1945/6. Sampson Low Marston & Company Limited, London, 1946. pp. 15c


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