Aviat Pitts S-2C “Special”
Two-seat Light Aerobatic Biplane
Aviat Pitts S-2C “Special” (N89PS, s/n 6013) at the Nellis 2007 Airshow
2007 Aviat Pitts S-2C (N110BK, s/n 6007) at the 2008 Camarillo Air Show
The Pitts “Special” is a light aerobatic biplane designed by Curtis Pitts. It has accumulated many competition wins since its first flight in 1944. The Pitts “Special” dominated world aerobatic competition in the 1960s and 1970s and, even today, remains a potent competition aircraft in the lower categories.
- Pitts S-2S “Special”
- Role: Two-seat Aerobatic biplane
- National origin: United States
- Manufacturer: Aviat Aircraft, Inc.
- Designed by: Curtis Pitts
- First flight: September 1944
Design and Development
Curtis Pitts began the design of a single-seat aerobatic biplane in 1943–1944. The design has been refined continuously since the prototype's first flight in September 1944, however, the current Pitts Specials still remain quite close to the original in concept and in design. Pitts also built several monoplane racing planes in the 1940s–1950s, the most famous of which was the low-winged “Pellet” of 1947 and the mid-winged “Lil' Monster” of 1951. Among other one-off projects, he also built a two-seat sport monoplane called the “Big Hickey”.
Several of the aircraft that Curtis Pitts built had a picture of a skunk on them and were called “Stinkers”. After she bought it, aerobatic performer Betty Skelton called the second aircraft that Curtis built, “Lil' Stinker”. The prototype S-2, which was the first two-seat Pitts, was “Big Stinker”, the prototype Model 11 (later called S1-11B) was “Super Stinker”, and the prototype Model 12 was the “Macho Stinker”.
In 1962 Curtis Pitts set up Pitts Enterprises to sell plans of the S-1C to homebuilders.
All single-seat (S-1) and two-seat (S-2) Pitts Specials are variations on the basic design from 1944. The aircraft was popularized by Betty Skelton, Caro Bayley and other air show performers, which lead to the offering of plans around 1960.
Pitts produced limited numbers of aircraft during the 1940s and 1950s. It is widely accepted that the Pitts “Special” is the standard by which all other aerobatic aircraft are judged. After a number of home-built aircraft were produced from rough hand-drawn plans produced by Pitts, more professionally drawn plans went on sale in 1962. While many home-built aircraft were built in the 1960s, earning the “Special” a reputation as an excellent aerobatic aircraft, Pitts worked on the design of a two-seat aerobatic trainer version, the S-2, which first flew in 1967 and gained its type certificate in 1971. Factory-built aircraft produced by the Aerotek company at Afton, Wyoming were joined in production by the single-seat S-1S in 1973.
In 1972, the US National Aerobatic Team won the World Championships flying only Pitts “Specials”. In 1977 Curtis Pitts sold his interests in the Pitts “Special” to Doyle Child. Child later sold the rights in 1981 to Frank Christenson, who continued production at the Afton plant under the guise of Christen Industries. The rights for home-built versions of the Pitts were sold in 1994 to Steen Aero Lab in 1994, with the Afton factory and production rights being transferred to Aviat.
Curtis Pitts died in 2005 at age 89. At the time of his death, he was working with Steen on the prototype of the new Pitts Model 14, a brand-new, two-seat biplane designed for unlimited aerobatics powered by the 400 horsepower Vedeneyev M14P radial engine. The rights to the Pitts name is currently owned by Aviat which also owns the similar model to the Pitts in the Christen Eagle.
Certified versions of the compact Pitts Special are now produced by Aviat in Afton, Wyoming. It is available as an S-1 single-seater with up to 200 hp (150 kW) flat-4 Lycoming engine and a 17 ft 4 in (5.28 m) wingspan, or as an S-2 two-seater variant featuring a 260 hp (194 kW) flat-6 Lycoming and a 20 ft (6.1 m) wingspan. Pitts “Specials” have been equipped with engines of up to 450 hp (338 kW).
The Pitts “Special” held sway over the aerobatic world championships until the rise of the monoplane, though it remains very competitive in all levels of competition and remains a favorite of air show performers worldwide. The first monoplane to topple the Pitts from the top of unlimited aerobatic competition was the Russian-built and designed Yak-50.
Today, the single-seat Pitts “Special” S-1S plans are available from Aviat Aircraft. The S-1C and derivative S-1SS plans and kits are supplied by Steen Aero Lab in Palm Bay, Florida. The S-1 continues to provide extremely high performance at a relatively low cost. Many hundreds of homebuilders have successfully completed and flown the Pitts since plans became available in 1960.
- S-1: Basic single-seat Pitts Special with a flat M6 Aerofoil section and lower wing ailerons only, fitted with a variety of engines.
- S-1C: Amateur-built S-1 single-seat aircraft, flat bottom wing with ailerons on lower wing only, designed for 100–180 hp (75–134 kW) engines. First flown in 1960, the S-1 is currently available as a plans-built aircraft from Steen Aero Lab.
- S-1D: Amateur-built S-1C with ailerons on all four wings, generally similar to S-1S.
- S-1E: Amateur-built S-1C using factory-produced kits. Uses symmetrical airfoil.
- S-1F: Outside derivative homebuilt, with the Falcon wing. Square tips, 25% more aileron span. In the UK, this model is fitted with a 200 hp (149 kW) Monty Barrett engine, and a lightweight Hoffmann VP propeller.
- S-1S: Aerotek-built certified S-1C for competition aerobatics, round Aerofoil section, four ailerons and powered by a 180 hp (134 kW) Lycoming AEIO-360-B4A; 61 built. This model is also available from Aviat Aircraft as a plans-built aircraft.
- S1-SS: Similar to the certified S-1S "Roundwing". 180–200+ hp (134–149 kW), single-seat, homebuilt, symmetrical wing, four symmetrical "Super-Stinker" style ailerons, 300 degree/s roll rate, fixed pitch propeller. This model is available in plans and components form from Steen Aero Lab.
- S-1T: Aerotek-built S-1C with a 200 hp (149 kW) Lycoming AEIO-360-A1E and minor changes; 64 built. Four-aileron, single-seat, factory-built, symmetrical wing, constant speed two- or three-blade Hartzell propeller. This model is in production in 2008 from Aviat Aircraft as an "on-demand" manufacture product.
- S-1-11B: Known as Model 11 "Super Stinker", 300+ hp (220 kW) Lycoming, four-aileron, single-seat, experimental-plans or factory-built and factory component parts, symmetric airfoil, three-blade constant speed prop, rolls better than 300 degree/s, climbs better than 3,000 ft/min (15.3 m/s).
- S-2:Scaled up S-1 with tandem two-seat fuselage and powered by a 200 hp (149 kW) Lycoming AEIO-360-B4A piston engine.
- S-2A: Aerotek-built S-2A with a 200 hp (149 kW) Lycoming AEIO-360-A1A or -A1E piston engine, constant speed propeller, later builds has a longer landing gear and a two-inch wider front cockpit; 259 built.
- S-2B:Aerotek-built S-2A with a 260 hp (194 kW) Lycoming AEIO-540-D4A5 engine, and upper wing auxiliary fuel tank, the landing gear and upper wings were moved forward six inches; 196 built. The aircraft is out of production but is supported by Aviat Aircraft.
- S-2C: Four aileron, two-seat, factory-built, symmetric airfoil, 260 hp (194 kW) Lycoming driving constant speed three-blade propeller, current production model. This was a modification of the S-2B model, with improved ailerons and rudder. It is in production in 2008 by Aviat Aircraft.
- S-2E: Amateur-built S-2A from factory-produced kits.
- S-2S: Aerotek-built S-2B with a single cockpit and a twin tank fuel system. The fuselage is shortened by 14 inches (35 cm) forward of the cockpit to allow the installation of the heavier 260 hp (194 kW) Lycoming AEIO-540-D4A5. The wingspan is 20 ft, 0 inches (6.10 m); 17 built. This model is currently out of production, but supported by Aviat Aircraft.
- S-2SE: Amateur-built S-2S from factory-produced kits.
- Model 12: Vedeneyev M14P 360–400 hp (270–300 kW) Russian radial engine, two- or three-blade MT propeller, plans built or kit built, component parts available. This was the last design completed and flown by Curtis Pitts. Kits are distributed by Jim Kimball Enterprises.
- Model 13: A "coupe" type monoplane design. It was never built.
- Model 14: Two-seat Vedeneyev M14P 360 hp (270 kW) radial-powered aircraft distributed in plans built form by Mid America Aircraft.
- Model 15: Reported as a light sport type monoplane aircraft being developed by Steen Aero Lab.
Specifications and Performance Data
- Engine: Lycoming AEIO-540, 260-hp
- Propeller: The Claw by Hartzell® 76: Composite Constant Speed
- Length: 17 ft. 9 in.
- Height: 6 ft. 5 in.
- Wing Span: 20 ft.
- Wing Area: 127.5 ft²
- Wing Loading (normal): 13.3 lbs/ft²
- Wing Loading (aerobatic): 12.7 lbs/ft²
- Power Loading (normal): 6.59 lbs/hp
- Power Loading (aerobatic): 6.25 lbs/hp
- Seats: 2 tandem
- Cabin Length: 6 ft. 11 in.
- Cabin Width: 28 in.
- Cabin Height: 47 in.
- Empty Weight: 1,155 lbs
- Maximum Gross Weight: 1,700 lbs
- Useful Load (normal): 545 lbs
- Useful Load (aerobatic): 470 lbs
- Payload (with full fuel): 371 lbs
- Fuel Capacity with 5 Gallon Wing Tank: 29 U.S. gallons (28 gallons usable)
- Aerobatic Flight Load Limits: +6 G/-5 G
- Takeoff Distance Ground Roll: 554 ft.
- Takeoff Distance Over 50 ft Obstacle: 860 ft.
- Max Demonstrated Crosswind Component: 17 kts
- Rate of Climb, Sea Level, Minimum Weight: 2,900 fpm
- Maximum Level Speed, Sea Level: 169 kts
- Cruise Speed w/30 minute reserve at 75% Power: 150 ktas/1.6 hours
- Range with 30 minute reserve reserve at 75% Power: 284 st. miles
- Fuel Consumption at 75% Power: 84 pph/14 gph
- Best Economy: 6,000 ft.
- Landing Distance over 50 ft Obstacle: 1,200 ft.
- Landing Distance, Ground Roll: 750 ft.
- VY (Best Rate of Climb): KIAS 82
- VA (Design Maneuvering): KIAS 134
- VNO (Max Structural Cruising): KIAS 134
- VNE (Never Exceed): KIAS 185
- VSI (Stall, Clean): KIAS 56
- Wikipedia. Aviat Aircraft Inc. website
- Photos by John Shupek of Skytamer Images, All Photos Copyright © 2009 Skytamer Images, All Rights Reserved.
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